Theodore of Mopsuestia
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Theodore of Mopsuestia (c. 350 – 428) was a Christian theologian, and Bishop of Mopsuestia from 392 to 428 AD. Theodore was an early companion and friend of John Chrysostom.
Commentary on the Lord's Prayer, Baptism and the Eucharist (Translated by Alphonse Mingana)
He who wishes to draw near to the gift of the holy baptism comes to the Church of God, which Christ our Lord showed to be a symbol of the heavenly things to the faithful in this world, when He said: “You are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it, and I will give to you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.” He showed in this that He granted to the Church the power that any one who becomes related to it should also be related to the heavenly things, and any one who becomes a stranger to it should also be clearly a stranger to the heavenly things.
When our Lord said: “He that eats my body and drinks my blood has eternal life,” and saw that the Jews were murmuring and doubting, thinking it impossible to receive immortality from mortal flesh, He added immediately to remove doubt: “If you see the Son of Man ascend up where He was before.” It is as if He were saying: the thing that is being said about my body does not appear now true to you, but when you see Me rising up from the dead and ascending into heaven, it will be made manifest to you that what was said was not harsh and unseemly, but that I have moved to an immortal nature. And in order to show from where these things came to Him He added: “It is the Spirit that lives, the flesh profits nothing,” as if He were saying: these things will come from the nature of the vivifying Spirit, and it is through Him that it will be given to the flesh to become immortal and to confer also immortality on others. These things the flesh did not possess, and was not, therefore, in a position to confer upon others as coming from its nature, because the nature of the flesh is not able by itself to grant a gift and a help of this kind. If, therefore, the nature of the vivifying Spirit made the body of our Lord into what its nature did not possess before, we who have received the grace of the Holy spirit through the symbols of the Sacrament, ought not to regard the elements merely as bread and cup, but as the body and the blood of Christ, into which they were so transformed by the descent of the Holy Spirit. This is the reason why He said: “I am the bread which came down from heaven,”; and “The bread that I will give is my flesh which I will give for the life of the world.”
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Commentary on the Nicene Creed (trans. by Alphonse Mingana)
To this our blessed Fathers added that the Son
was “consubstantial” with His Father, a word that confirms
the beliefs of children of the faith and rebukes the unbelievers.
Although this is not explicitly written in Holy Writ
yet its meaning is found therein…
The meaning of the sentence “consubstantial with His Father”
is clearly found in the Book. When it says:
“In the beginning He was with God and He was God,”
it shows by means of these two phrases that
He is God in nature and that He is consubstantial with God.
It is with justice, therefore, that our blessed Fathers said: ‘He was incarnate and became a man’ in order to show that He was a man, as the blessed Paul testifies…
The Marcionites and the Manicheans together with the followers of Valentinus and the rest of the heretics who were affected with a like malady, say that our Lord did not assume any of our natures either of the body or the soul, but that He was a phantasm…
The partisans of Arius and Eunomius, however, say that He assumed a body but not a soul, and that the nature of the Godhead took the place of the soul. They lowered the Divine nature of the Only Begotten to the extent that from the greatness of its nature it moved and performed the acts of the soul and imprisoned itself in the body…
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