Definition of Terms:
Purgatory is a temporary state of purification for souls who have died in a state of grace and have received the reward of eternal salvation, but still need to be purified from the effects of their sins before entering heaven. Souls in purgatory are destined for heaven, but may undergo a process of cleansing to achieve perfect holiness and be fully prepared for eternal life with God, if they have not already attained complete sanctification by God’s grace while still living. Not every soul destined for heaven is in need of purification, but only those souls that may still have some personal attachment to sin or it’s effects. The living can pray for the souls in purgatory to help alleviate their suffering and hasten their journey to heaven.
The concept of purgatory, while not explicitly spelled out in the Bible, can be reasoned from inferences drawn from various passages. There are several underlying principles found in Scripture that support the concept of purgatory;
- Forgiveness and Penance: While a sincere confession of sins and acceptance of God’s forgiveness is essential, Scripture suggests that God’s forgiveness does not always remove the natural or earthly consequences of our actions. This is evident by the fact that we are still suffering the consequences of Adam’s sin despite Christ’s atoning sacrifice. In Scripture, we can find other instances of consequences of sin even after forgiveness. One example is in the story of King David from the Old Testament. In 2 Samuel 12:13-14, after David confesses his sin of adultery and murder, the prophet Nathan tells him that the Lord has forgiven him, saying, “The Lord has taken away your sin. You are not going to die. But because by doing this you have shown utter contempt for the Lord, the son born to you will die.”
- Nothing Unclean in Heaven: in Revelation 21:27, it states that nothing unclean will enter heaven, Psalm 24:3-4 says only “he who has clean hands and a pure heart” will see God and Hebrews 12:14 that we should strive for “the holiness without which no one will see the Lord.” These verses emphasize the importance of holiness and purity, and show that sin and impurity have no place in heaven. Only those who have been cleansed and purified through Christ will have access to it. Purgatory is viewed as a means of cleansing souls to ensure they are entirely pure and prepared to enter the presence of God.
- Purifying effects of Suffering: Various biblical passages associate suffering with purification or refinement. For example, 1 Peter 1:7 compares the testing of faith to the refinement of gold through fire. Job 23:10, Rom 5:3-5, Col 1:24, Jam 1:2-4, suggest that suffering can be purifying and even act as a participation in Christ’s own suffering. Purgatory is seen as a state where souls undergo purifying suffering to be made spiritually pure and fit for heaven.
- Prayers for the Dead: Several passages, like 2 Maccabees 12:46, show the Jewish practice of praying for the dead, which is the faith Christ was born into. In 2 Timothy 1:16-18, Paul prays for his departed friend Onisephorus that “the Lord grant him mercy on that day!” The context makes it clear his friend was deceased. This practice only makes sense if there is some intermediate state of the soul, as souls in heaven have no need of prayers and any prayers for the damned would be ineffective. The belief in purgatory suggests that prayers for the deceased can aid in their purification process.
The Old Testament:
The idea of a final purification after death was believed by Jews even before Christ, as shown in the 2 Macc. 12:39-46 and other pre-Christian Jewish works. Though not present in Protestant Bibles, this passage from the Catholic and Orthodox Old Testament speaks of praying for the dead, indicating a belief in a state of purification after death. Orthodox Jews to this day believe in the final purification, and for eleven months after the death of a loved one, they pray a prayer called the Mourner’s Kaddish for their loved one’s purification. II Maccabees shows us that the Jews believed in praying and making atonement for the dead shortly before the advent of Christ.
There are some references in other Jewish writings that suggest a belief in the possibility of post-mortem purification. While the Dead Sea Scrolls do not explicitly mention purgatory, they contain writings that indicate the belief in an afterlife and the possibility of divine purification. For instance, in the “Community Rule” (1QS) found among the scrolls, there is mention of a time when the spirits of the deceased will be purified, suggesting a belief in post-mortem purification. In later rabbinic literature, such as the Talmud and Midrash, there are references to the concept of Gehenna, a place of purgation and temporary punishment for sinners before entering the World to Come (Olam Haba).
The New Testament:
There are a few references to the afterlife in the New Testament that suggest a temporary state of the soul that may entail purification. 1 Corinthians 3:10-15 speaks about believers’ works being tested by fire, and those whose works are burned will suffer loss but still be saved. In Scripture, “fire” is used metaphorically in two ways: as a purifying agent (Mal. 3:2-3; Matt. 3:11; Mark 9:49); and as that which consumes (Matt. 3:12; 2 Thess. 1:7-8). The works that are consumed are referring to sin (Matthew 7:21-23, John 8:40, Galatians 5:19-21).
In Matthew 5:24-26, Jesus talks about settling with an opponent before reaching the court, suggesting the need to reconcile and make amends before facing final judgment. Taken in context, it is clear that Jesus meant this as a metaphor for the afterlife as these verses are found during His “Sermon on the Mount,” where our Lord teaches about the Kingdom of Heaven, hell, mortal and venial sins, and heavenly rewards (see verses 3-46). The Greek word here for prison, phulake, is the same word used in I Peter 3:19, to describe the “holding place” into which Jesus descended after his death to liberate the detained spirits of Old Testament believers.
Jesus implies there are at least some sins that can be forgiven in the next life, suggesting sins may be cleansed in the afterlife: “And whoever says a word against the Son of man will be forgiven; but whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven, either in this age or in the age to come” (Matthew 12:32).
The Church Fathers:
In the early Church, the concept of purgatory began to develop and take shape. Early Christians believed in the purgation or purification of souls after death and held that some souls needed to be cleansed from the remnants of sin before entering the fullness of God’s presence. Prayers for the deceased was a widespread practice in the early church and can be seen from the very beginning.
Early archaeological evidence of prayers for the dead can be found in inscriptions and artifacts from Christian catacombs of Rome and other regions. The epitaph of Abercius (2nd century), known as the “Inscription of Abercius,” contains a prayer for the soul of the deceased bishop. It reads: “Let every friend who observes this pray for Abercius.” Other epitaphs found in the catacombs of Rome containing prayers for the deceased include the epitaph of Alexander (early 3rd century), the epitaph of Felix (late 2nd or early 3rd century), and the epitaph of Dioscorides (3rd century). The epitaph of Vettius Agorius Praetextatus (4th century), slightly later in date, mentions prayers for his wife, Aconia Fabia Paulina: “May you live in God and remember your parents.”
The Church Fathers recognized the practice of praying for the deceased. They believed that these prayers could be beneficial for the souls of departed believers, especially in asking for God’s mercy and assistance on their behalf. This practice reflected a sense of continuity and communal responsibility within the Christian community to support one another, including aiding souls through a purifying process after death.
Tertullian (c. 160 – c. 225 AD), in his work “De Corona,” mentions the practice of offering prayers and sacrifices for the dead. Cyprian of Carthage (c. 200 – 258 AD), in his “Letter 51” (Epistle 51), encourages the practice of almsgiving and prayers for the dead. He highlights the belief that such acts can be beneficial for the souls of the departed. Origen of Alexandria (c. 184 – c. 253 AD), in his “Homilies on Luke,” speaks about the possibility of purification after death. Augustine of Hippo (354 – 430 AD) discussed the idea of a purifying fire after death in his work “Enchiridion” (Handbook on Faith, Hope, and Love). He states that some souls undergo a process of purification before entering the fullness of God’s presence.
It’s important to note that while the term “purgatory” itself may not be explicitly used, the underlying ideas were present since the earliest stages of the Church. (see Church Fathers Quotes below).
The concept of purgatory evolved over time, and while it was not fully defined as it is in modern Catholic theology, the writings of the Church Fathers provided the foundation for the development of the doctrine of purgatory. The specific doctrine as later formulated took shape in the medieval period, particularly in the 13th century, during the Scholastic era. It was especially influenced by Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, and Catherine of Genoa.
Thomas Aquinas, in his work “Summa Theologica,” Supplement, Question 2, elaborates on the nature of purgatory, emphasizing the temporal punishment required for venial sins and a purifying process before entering heaven. Catherine of Genoa, in her spiritual writings and visions known as “Treatise on Purgatory”, describes the transformative experience of souls in purgatory, likening it to a burning love that purifies and draws the soul closer to God. The doctrine of purgatory was officially defined and affirmed by the Council of Florence, also known as the Seventeenth Ecumenical Council. This council took place in Florence, Italy, between 1431 and 1449, with various sessions held over the years.
2 Maccabees 12:41-45
“So they all blessed the ways of the Lord, the righteous judge, who reveals the things that are hidden; and they turned to supplication, praying that the sin that had been committed might be wholly blotted out. The noble Judas exhorted the people to keep themselves free from sin, for they had seen with their own eyes what had happened as the result of the sin of those who had fallen. He also took up a collection, man by man, to the amount of two thousand drachmas of silver, and sent it to Jerusalem to provide for a sin offering. In doing this he acted very well and honorably, taking account of the resurrection. For if he were not expecting that those who had fallen would rise again, it would have been superfluous and foolish to pray for the dead. But if he was looking to the splendid reward that is laid up for those who fall asleep in godliness, it was a holy and pious thought. Therefore he made atonement for the dead, so that they might be delivered from their sin.”
The Gospel of Matthew 5:25–26
“Come to terms quickly with your accuser while you are on the way to court with him, or your accuser may hand you over to the judge, and the judge to the guard, and you will be thrown into prison. Truly I tell you, you will never get out until you have paid the last penny.”
The Gospel of Matthew 12:31–32
“Therefore I tell you, people will be forgiven for every sin and blasphemy, but blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven. Whoever speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven, either in this age or in the age to come.”
1 Corinthians 3:11–15
“For no one can lay any foundation other than the one that has been laid; that foundation is Jesus Christ. Now if anyone builds on the foundation with gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, straw— the work of each builder will become visible, for the Day will disclose it, because it will be revealed with fire, and the fire will test what sort of work each has done. If what has been built on the foundation survives, the builder will receive a reward. If the work is burned up, the builder will suffer loss; the builder will be saved, but only as through fire.”
Gospel of Matthew 5:8
“Blessed are the pure in heart, for they will see God.”
“I am now rejoicing in my sufferings for your sake, and in my flesh I am completing what is lacking in Christ’s afflictions for the sake of his body, that is, the church.”
“And not only that, but we also boast in our sufferings, knowing that suffering produces endurance, and endurance produces character, and character produces hope, and hope does not disappoint us, because God’s love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit that has been given to us.”
Church Father Quotes:
The Acts of Paul and Thecla (Written 160 A.D.)
“And after the exhibition, Tryphaena again received her [Thecla]. For her daughter Falconilla had died, and said to her in a dream: ‘Mother, you shall have this stranger Thecla in my place, in order that she may pray concerning me, and that I may be transferred to the place of the righteous’” (Acts of Paul and Thecla [A.D. 160]).
Abercius (ca. 190 A.D.)
“The citizen of a prominent city, I erected this while I lived, that I might have a resting place for my body. Abercius is my name, a disciple of the chaste Shepherd who feeds his sheep on the mountains and in the fields, who has great eyes surveying everywhere, who taught me the faithful writings of life. Standing by, I, Abercius, ordered this to be inscribed: Truly, I was in my seventy-second year. May everyone who is in accord with this and who understands it pray for Abercius” (Epitaph of Abercius [A.D. 190]).
The Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicity (Written ca 200 A.D.)
“[T]hat very night, this was shown to me in a vision: I [Perpetua] saw Dinocrates going out from a gloomy place, where also there were several others, and he was parched and very thirsty, with a filthy countenance and pallid color, and the wound on his face which he had when he died. This Dinocrates had been my brother after the flesh, seven years of age, who died miserably with disease. . . . For him I had made my prayer, and between him and me there was a large interval, so that neither of us could approach to the other . . . and [I] knew that my brother was in suffering. But I trusted that my prayer would bring help to his suffering. . . . I made my prayer for my brother day and night, groaning and weeping that he might be granted to me. Then, on the day on which we remained in fetters, this was shown to me: I saw that the place which I had formerly observed to be in gloom was now bright; and Dinocrates, with a clean body well clad, was finding refreshment. . . . [And] he went away from the water to play joyously, after the manner of children, and I awoke. Then I understood that he was translated from the place of punishment” (The Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicity 2:3–4 [A.D. 202]).
Tertullian of Carthage
“We offer sacrifices for the dead on their birthday anniversaries [the date of death—birth into eternal life]” (The Crown 3:3 [A.D. 211]).
“A woman, after the death of her husband . . . prays for his soul and asks that he may, while waiting, find rest; and that he may share in the first resurrection. And each year, on the anniversary of his death, she offers the sacrifice” (Monogamy 10:1–2 [A.D. 216]).
St. Cyril of Jerusalem
“Then we make mention also of those who have already fallen asleep: first, the patriarchs, prophets, apostles, and martyrs, that through their prayers and supplications God would receive our petition; next, we make mention also of the holy fathers and bishops who have already fallen asleep, and, to put it simply, of all among us who have already fallen asleep, for we believe that it will be of very great benefit to the souls of those for whom the petition is carried up, while this holy and most solemn sacrifice is laid out” (Catechetical Lectures 23:5:9 [A.D. 350]).
St. Gregory of Nyssa
“If a man distinguish in himself what is peculiarly human from that which is irrational, and if he be on the watch for a life of greater urbanity for himself, in this present life he will purify himself of any evil contracted, overcoming the irrational by reason. If he has inclined to the irrational pressure of the passions, using for the passions the cooperating hide of things irrational, he may afterward in a quite different manner be very much interested in what is better, when, after his departure out of the body, he gains knowledge of the difference between virtue and vice and finds that he is not able to partake of divinity until he has been purged of the filthy contagion in his soul by the purifying fire” (Sermon on the Dead [A.D. 382]).
St. John Chrysostom
“Let us help and commemorate them. If Job’s sons were purified by their father’s sacrifice [Job 1:5], why would we doubt that our offerings for the dead bring them some consolation? Let us not hesitate to help those who have died and to offer our prayers for them” (Homilies on First Corinthians 41:5 [A.D. 392]).
“Weep for those who die in their wealth and who with all their wealth prepared no consolation for their own souls, who had the power to wash away their sins and did not will to do it. Let us weep for them, let us assist them to the extent of our ability, let us think of some assistance for them, small as it may be, yet let us somehow assist them. But how, and in what way? By praying for them and by entreating others to pray for them, by constantly giving alms to the poor on their behalf. Not in vain was it decreed by the apostles that in the awesome mysteries remembrance should be made of the departed. They knew that here there was much gain for them, much benefit. When the entire people stands with hands uplifted, a priestly assembly, and that awesome sacrificial Victim is laid out, how, when we are calling upon God, should we not succeed in their defense? But this is done for those who have departed in the faith, while even the catechumens are not reckoned as worthy of this consolation, but are deprived of every means of assistance except one. And what is that? We may give alms to the poor on their behalf” (Homilies on Philippians 3:9–10 [A.D. 402]).
St. Augustine of Hippo
“There is an ecclesiastical discipline, as the faithful know, when the names of the martyrs are read aloud in that place at the altar of God, where prayer is not offered for them. Prayer, however, is offered for other dead who are remembered. It is wrong to pray for a martyr, to whose prayers we ought ourselves be commended” (Sermons 159:1 [A.D. 411]).
“But by the prayers of the holy Church, and by the salvific sacrifice, and by the alms which are given for their spirits, there is no doubt that the dead are aided, that the Lord might deal more mercifully with them than their sins would deserve. The whole Church observes this practice which was handed down by the Fathers: that it prays for those who have died in the communion of the Body and Blood of Christ, when they are commemorated in their own place in the sacrifice itself; and the sacrifice is offered also in memory of them, on their behalf. If, then, works of mercy are celebrated for the sake of those who are being remembered, who would hesitate to recommend them, on whose behalf prayers to God are not offered in vain? It is not at all to be doubted that such prayers are of profit to the dead; but for such of them as lived before their death in a way that makes it possible for these things to be useful to them after death” (ibid., 172:2).
“Temporal punishments are suffered by some in this life only, by some after death, by some both here and hereafter, but all of them before that last and strictest judgment. But not all who suffer temporal punishments after death will come to eternal punishments, which are to follow after that judgment” (The City of God 21:13 [A.D. 419]).
“That there should be some fire even after this life is not incredible, and it can be inquired into and either be discovered or left hidden whether some of the faithful may be saved, some more slowly and some more quickly in the greater or lesser degree in which they loved the good things that perish, through a certain purgatorial fire” (Handbook on Faith, Hope, and Charity 18:69 [A.D. 421]).
“The time which interposes between the death of a man and the final resurrection holds souls in hidden retreats, accordingly as each is deserving of rest or of hardship, in view of what it merited when it was living in the flesh. Nor can it be denied that the souls of the dead find relief through the piety of their friends and relatives who are still alive, when the Sacrifice of the Mediator [Mass] is offered for them, or when alms are given in the Church. But these things are of profit to those who, when they were alive, merited that they might afterward be able to be helped by these things. There is a certain manner of living, neither so good that there is no need of these helps after death, nor yet so wicked that these helps are of no avail after death” (ibid., 29:109).
C. S. Lewis (1898-1963), British writer and lay theologian, author of The Screwtape Letters and The Chronicles of Narnia
“Of course I pray for the dead. The action is so spontaneous, so all but inevitable, that only the most compulsive theological case against it would deter me. And I hardly know how the rest of my prayers would survive if those for the dead were forbidden. At our age the majority of those we love best are dead. What sort of intercourse with God could I have if what I love best were unmentionable to him?
“On the traditional Protestant view, all the dead are damned or saved. If they are damned, prayer for them is useless. If they are saved, it is equally useless. God has already done all for them. What more should we ask? But don’t we believe that God has already done and is already doing all that He can for the living? What more should we ask? Yet we are told to ask.
“‘Yes,’ it will be answered, ‘but the living are still on the road. Further trials, developments, possibilities of error, await them. But the saved have been made perfect. They have finished the course. To pray for them presupposes that progress and difficulty are still possible. In fact, you are bringing in something like purgatory.’
“Well, I suppose I am . . . I believe in purgatory. . .
“Our souls demand purgatory, don’t they? Would it not break the heart if God said to us, ‘It is true, my son, that your breath smells and your rags drip with mud and slime, but we are charitable here and no one will upbraid you with these things, nor draw away from you. Enter into the joy’? Should we not reply, ‘With submission, sir, and if there is no objection, I’d rather be cleaned first.’ ‘It may hurt, you know’—‘Even so, sir.’” –Letters to Malcolm, Chiefly on Prayer
The Baptist Abstract of Principles (1859)
believers may “fall, through neglect and temptation, into sin, whereby they grieve the Spirit, impair their graces and comforts, bring reproach on the Church, and temporal judgments on themselves . . . ” –Leith, p. 342
Charles Stanley, Pastor Emeritus of Atlanta’s First Baptist Church and founder of In Touch Ministries
“Now, imagine standing before God and seeing all you have lived for reduced to ashes. How do you think you would respond? Picture yourself watching saint after saint rewarded for faithfulness and service to the King—and all the time knowing that you had just as many opportunities but did nothing about them. We cannot conceive of the agony and frustration we would feel if we were to undergo such an ordeal; the realization that our unfaithfulness had cost us eternally would be devastating. And so it will be for many believers. Just as those who are found faithful will rejoice, so those who suffer loss will weep. As some are celebrated for their faithfulness, others will gnash their teeth in frustration over their own shortsightedness and greed. We do not know how long this time of rejoicing and sorrow will last. Those whose works are burned will not weep and gnash their teeth for eternity. At some point we know God will comfort those who have suffered loss (see Rev. 21:4) . . . On the other side of the coin, we can rest assured that none of our good deeds will go unnoticed, either.” –Eternal Security