Mother of God:

Definition of Terms:

  • Theotokos: a Greek term meaning “God-Bearer.” It is used to honor and affirm the belief that Mary, the mother of Jesus, gave birth to the incarnate Son of God, making her the Mother of God.
  • Nestorianism: a 5th century Christological heresy associated with Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople, who taught that there were two distinct persons in Jesus Christ, one divine and one human, rather than a unified divine-human nature.
  • Christokos: a Greek term that means “Christ-Bearer.” It was proposed by Nestorius as an alternative to Theotokos to emphasize Mary’s role as the mother of the human aspect of Jesus, so as not to imply motherhood of His divinity. It was rejected in order to emphasize the unity of Christ’s divinity and humanity in one person.

The early church understood Mary as the Mother of God through the theological concept of “Theotokos,” a term used to emphasize that Mary gave birth to Jesus, who was both fully divine and fully human. Theotokos (Greek: Θεοτόκος), meaning “God-bearer”, is usually translated into Latin as “Dei Genitrix” and into English as “Mother of God“. This title affirmed Jesus’ dual nature and highlighted Mary’s role in the Incarnation. The Council of Ephesus in 431 AD officially recognized and affirmed Mary as Theotokos, solidifying her position as the Mother of God in Christian doctrine. This understanding played a significant role in shaping early Christian theology and Christological discussions.

Theologically, the terms “Mother of God“, “Mother of Incarnate God” (and its variants) should not be taken to imply that Mary is the source of the divine nature of Jesus, who Christians believe existed with the Father from all eternity. The title ‘Mother of God’ has less to do with who Mary is and more to do with who her son is. Mary not only carried Jesus in her womb but also supplied all of the genetic matter for his human body so that He could be “descended from David according to the flesh” (Rom. 1:3). If Mary is the mother of Jesus, and if Jesus is God, then Mary is the Mother of God.

Scriptural Roots:

While the term “Theotokos” and the understanding of Mary as the Mother of God emerged primarily from early Christian theological reflections, the early Christians drew upon various Old Testament prophecies and types that pointed towards the coming of the Messiah and the unique role Mary would play in bringing Him into the world.

Matthew 1:23: “Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and they shall call his name Immanuel” (which means, God with us).

Isaiah 7:14: “Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign: The virgin will conceive and give birth to a son, and will call him Immanuel.”

In Matthew 1:23, when it says “‘a virgin shall conceive and bear (Greek=tíktō) a son, and he shall be called ‘Emmanuel’, which means God (Greek= Theos) with us,” the Greek words “tikto” and “theos” form the root of the title “Theotokos “ (God-Bearer). Thus, when the early Church applied this title to Mary, they were drawing directly from Scripture.

When Mary’s cousin Elizabeth greets her, she calls her “the Mother of my Lord” (Luke 1:43). In the Jewish context, the term “Lord” is a translation of the Hebrew word “Adonai,” which was often used as a respectful way to refer to God. The Jews avoided pronouncing the sacred name of God (Yahweh), so they used “Adonai” as a substitute to show reverence and avoid any potential misuse of the divine name.

When Elizabeth called Mary “the Mother of my Lord” in Luke 1:43, she was acknowledging Mary as the mother of the Messiah, who was believed to be the Son of God by Christians. This phrase is significant because it suggests that Jesus, whom Mary was carrying in her womb, is not just an ordinary child but the divine Son of God. This is evidenced in Galatians 4:4-5 where it states that God predestined from all of time that His Son should be born of a woman.

Mary’s role in salvation history is illustrated in Scripture through the role of “the woman” in Genesis 3:15 and Revelation 12:1-5; While not directly related to Mary as the Mother of God, these passages connect to broader themes. Genesis 3:15’s “woman” and Revelation 12’s imagery of a woman giving birth to a son are understood in Christian theology to have symbolic significance, pointing to Mary’s role in bringing forth the Savior who will conquer sin and evil.

The Early Church:

Evidence from the 1st and 2nd centuries suggests that the early Christians held a high view of Mary’s role and used titles that emphasized her connection to Jesus as both God and human. While the specific term “Theotokos” (Mother of God) might not have been used in the exact form that it later took, the theological concepts that underpin it were present in the early Christian writings.

For instance, the Sub tuum praesidium (Beneath Your Protection) prayer is one of the earliest known Christian hymns. Extant copies have been dated to around 250 C.E., but most scholars agree that the oral prayer probably dates much earlier. This prayer includes the phrase “beneath your compassion” or “under your mercy.” This hymn reflects a plea to Mary for protection and intercession, which suggests an early recognition of her special role. The hymns of the Eastern Orthodox Church, known as the “Akathist Hymn” and the “Magnificat,” further celebrated Mary’s role as the “God-bearer.”

Early Christian theologians like Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, and Origen wrote about Mary’s significance in relation to Jesus. They emphasized her purity, her role as the “new Eve,” and her pivotal role in the Incarnation. Early Christian liturgical practices, such as veneration of Mary and feasts like the Annunciation, suggest a recognition of her significance in salvation history. The earliest known reference to Mary as “Theotokos” can be traced back to the early 3rd century in the writings of Origen, an influential Christian theologian and scholar. The use of the term in Origen’s writings suggest wide-spread familiarity with the term at the time;

“Hence Elizabeth, filled with the Holy Spirit, greeted Mary with the words: ‘Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb.’ If the fruit was blessed, how much more was the one who bore the fruit? And if Elizabeth called Mary blessed, how much more does He who was brought forth by her bless her? … He indeed who was about to be born, existed before He was born. Therefore He made His mother a Theotokos, for He was God, and not merely one who was to be born of a woman.” –Origen’s commentary on the Gospel of John, written around 229-232 AD

Early Christian catacomb art includes depictions of Mary and the child Jesus that symbolize the theological concepts surrounding Mary’s role as the Mother of God. These images were created during a time when Christians faced persecution, and the visual representation in these icons strongly support the foundational belief in Mary’s unique relationship to Jesus. This art inspired later icons, such as the Virgin and Child icons, often referred to as the “Theotokos of Vladimir,” which portrays Mary tenderly holding the child Jesus. Another important type of icon is the Hodegetria (“She who shows the way”), which depicts Mary holding Jesus on her left arm and pointing toward Him with her right hand, directing attention to Him as the source of salvation.


In the fifth century, the Christological heresy known as Nestorianism emerged and challenged the understanding of the nature of Jesus Christ. Named after Nestorius, the Archbishop of Constantinople, the heresy propagated a view that emphasized a separation between Jesus’ divine and human natures to the extent that they were seen as distinct persons rather than united in one person.

The controversy stemmed from Nestorius’s reluctance to use the title “Theotokos” (Mother of God) for Mary, as he believed it implied that the divine nature was born or that Mary gave birth to God Himself. Instead, he preferred the term “Christotokos” (Christ-bearer) to highlight the humanity of Jesus and to maintain a separation between the two natures.

Nestorianism led to a major theological controversy and division within the Church. Opponents, led by figures like Cyril of Alexandria, argued that Nestorius’s view undermined the unity of Christ’s person and jeopardized the understanding of Jesus as both fully divine and fully human. The Council of Ephesus in 431 AD addressed this controversy and condemned Nestorianism. The council affirmed the use of “Theotokos” and upheld the belief in the hypostatic union, which maintains the inseparable unity of Jesus’ divine and human natures in one person. The Second Council of Constantinople (553 AD) further affirmed the Christological understanding of Mary’s title “Theotokos.”

Despite the condemnation of Nestorianism at the Council of Ephesus, the theological controversy persisted for years, with some supporters of Nestorius forming separate church communities. These communities became known as the Nestorian Church or the Church of the East, which had a strong presence in Persia and other parts of the Eastern world. Over time, this branch of Christianity developed its own distinctive theological traditions and spread to regions such as India and China.

Nestorianism highlighted the importance of accurately understanding the nature of Christ and the implications it holds for Christian theology. The debate and its aftermath contributed to the formulation of Christological doctrines and the clarification of the relationship between Jesus’ divine and human natures within orthodox Christian belief.

Mary, the Mother of Christians:

Mary is also regarded as the mother of all Christians in both a spiritual and symbolic sense. Mary is the biological mother of Jesus Christ, the central figure in Christianity. This fact alone establishes her as the mother of all Christians.

In addition, during the crucifixion, Jesus entrusted His beloved disciple, traditionally identified as John, with the care of His mother, Mary (John 19:26-27). He said to John, “Behold your mother,” and to Mary, “Behold your son.” This moment is significant because it extends Mary’s motherhood beyond Jesus. Early Church Fathers understood this to include all believers. In this statement, Jesus indicates that Mary is not only His mother but also the mother of the Church, symbolizing her maternal care and intercession for all Christians.

The early church found support for this understanding through Biblical Typology. They found types of Mary in the Old Testament, including Mary as the New Eve, Mary as the New Sarah, Mary as the New Rachel, and Mary as the New Bathsheba. These four women were all regarded as spiritual mothers of the Israelites by the Jewish people. Mary, fulfills this role for Christians. Through her, Jesus Christ, the fulfillment of God’s promises, was born, thus establishing the New Covenant.  Mary’s obedience, faith, and virtues make her not only a model of discipleship but also a spiritual mother who intercedes for all believers before her Son, Jesus Christ.

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Bible Verses:

The Gospel of Matthew 1:23
“Look, the virgin shall conceive and bear (tikto) a son, and they shall name him Emmanuel,” which means, “God (theos) is with us.”

The Gospel of Luke 1:43
“And why has this happened to me, that the mother of my Lord comes to me?”

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Church Father Quotes:

Irenaeus of Lyons
“The Virgin Mary, being obedient to his word, received from an angel the glad tidings that she would bear God” (Against Heresies, 5:19:1 [A.D. 189]).

Hippolytus of Rome
“[T]o all generations they [the prophets] have pictured forth the grandest subjects for contemplation and for action. Thus, too, they preached of the advent of God in the flesh to the world, his advent by the spotless and God-bearing (theotokos) Mary in the way of birth and growth” (Discourse on the End of the World 1 [A.D. 217]).

Gregory Thaumaturgus
“For Luke, in the inspired Gospel narratives, delivers a testimony not to Joseph only, but also to Mary, the Mother of God, and gives this account with reference to the very family and house of David” (Four Homilies 1 [A.D. 262]).

“It is our duty to present to God, like sacrifices, all the festivals and hymnal celebrations; and first of all, [the feast of] the Annunciation to the holy Mother of God, to wit, the salutation made to her by the angel, ‘Hail, full of grace!’” (ibid., 2).

Peter of Alexandria
“They came to the church of the most blessed Mother of God, and ever-virgin Mary, which, as we began to say, he had constructed in the western quarter, in a suburb, for a cemetery of the martyrs” (The Genuine Acts of Peter of Alexandria [A.D. 305]).

“We acknowledge the resurrection of the dead, of which Jesus Christ our Lord became the firstling; he bore a body not in appearance but in truth derived from Mary the Mother of God” (Letter to All Non-Egyptian Bishops 12 [A.D. 324]).

Methodius of Olympus
“While the old man [Simeon] was thus exultant, and rejoicing with exceeding great and holy joy, that which had before been spoken of in a figure by the prophet Isaiah, the holy Mother of God now manifestly fulfilled” (Oration on Simeon and Anna 7 [A.D. 305]).

“Hail to you forever, you virgin Mother of God, our unceasing joy, for unto you do I again return. . . . Hail, you fount of the Son’s love for man. . . . Wherefore, we pray you, the most excellent among women, who boast in the confidence of your maternal honors, that you would unceasingly keep us in remembrance. O holy Mother of God, remember us, I say, who make our boast in you, and who in august hymns celebrate your memory, which will ever live, and never fade away” (ibid., 14).

Cyril of Jerusalem
“The Father bears witness from heaven to his Son. The Holy Spirit bears witness, coming down bodily in the form of a dove. The archangel Gabriel bears witness, bringing the good tidings to Mary. The Virgin Mother of God bears witness” (Catechetical Lectures 10:19 [A.D. 350]).

Ephraim the Syrian
“Though still a virgin she carried a child in her womb, and the handmaid and work of his wisdom became the Mother of God” (Songs of Praise 1:20 [A.D. 351]).

Athanasius of Alexandria
“The Word begotten of the Father from on high, inexpressibly, inexplicably, incomprehensibly, and eternally, is he that is born in time here below of the Virgin Mary, the Mother of God” (The Incarnation of the Word of God 8 [A.D. 365]).

Epiphanius of Salamis
“Being perfect at the side of the Father and incarnate among us, not in appearance but in truth, he [the Son] reshaped man to perfection in himself from Mary the Mother of God through the Holy Spirit” (The Man Well-Anchored 75 [A.D. 374]).

Ambrose of Milan
“The first thing which kindles ardor in learning is the greatness of the teacher. What is greater than the Mother of God? What more glorious than she whom Glory Itself chose?” (The Virgins 2:2[7] [A.D. 377]).

Gregory of Nazianzus
“If anyone does not agree that holy Mary is Mother of God, he is at odds with the Godhead” (Letter to Cledonius the Priest 101 [A.D. 382]).

Jerome of Stridon
“As to how a virgin became the Mother of God, he [Rufinus] has full knowledge; as to how he himself was born, he knows nothing” (Against Rufinus 2:10 [A.D. 401]).

“Do not marvel at the novelty of the thing, if a Virgin gives birth to God” (Commentaries on Isaiah 3:7:15 [A.D. 409]).

Theodore of Mopsuestia
“When, therefore, they ask, ‘Is Mary mother of man or Mother of God?’ we answer, ‘Both!’ The one by the very nature of what was done and the other by relation” (The Incarnation 15 [A.D. 405]).

Cyril of Alexandria
“I have been amazed that some are utterly in doubt as to whether or not the holy Virgin is able to be called the Mother of God. For if our Lord Jesus Christ is God, how should the holy Virgin who bore him not be the Mother of God?” (Letter to the Monks of Egypt 1 [A.D. 427]).

“This expression, however, ‘the Word was made flesh’ [John 1:14], can mean nothing else but that he partook of flesh and blood like to us; he made our body his own, and came forth man from a woman, not casting off his existence as God, or his generation of God the Father, but even in taking to himself flesh remaining what he was. This the declaration of the correct faith proclaims everywhere. This was the sentiment of the holy Fathers; therefore they ventured to call the holy Virgin ‘the Mother of God,’ not as if the nature of the Word or his divinity had its beginning from the holy Virgin, but because of her was born that holy body with a rational soul, to which the Word, being personally united, is said to be born according to the flesh” (First Letter to Nestorius [A.D. 430]).

“And since the holy Virgin corporeally brought forth God made one with flesh according to nature, for this reason we also call her Mother of God, not as if the nature of the Word had the beginning of its existence from the flesh” (Third Letter to Nestorius [A.D. 430]).

“If anyone will not confess that the Emmanuel is very God, and that therefore the holy Virgin is the Mother of God, inasmuch as in the flesh she bore the Word of God made flesh [John 1:14]: let him be anathema” (ibid.).

John Cassian
“Now, you heretic, you say (whoever you are who deny that God was born of the Virgin), that Mary, the Mother of our Lord Jesus Christ, cannot be called the Mother of God, but the Mother only of Christ and not of God—for no one, you say, gives birth to one older than herself. And concerning this utterly stupid argument . . . let us prove by divine testimonies both that Christ is God and that Mary is the Mother of God” (On the Incarnation of Christ Against Nestorius 2:2 [A.D. 429]).

“You cannot then help admitting that the grace comes from God. It is God, then, who has given it. But it has been given by our Lord Jesus Christ. Therefore the Lord Jesus Christ is God. But if he is God, as he certainly is, then she who bore God is the Mother of God” (ibid., 2:5).

The Council of Ephesus
“We confess, then, our Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, perfect God and perfect man, of a rational soul and a body, begotten before all ages from the Father in his Godhead, the same in the last days, for us and for our salvation, born of Mary the Virgin according to his humanity, one and the same consubstantial with the Father in Godhead and consubstantial with us in humanity, for a union of two natures took place. Therefore we confess one Christ, one Son, one Lord. According to this understanding of the unconfused union, we confess the holy Virgin to be the Mother of God because God the Word took flesh and became man and from his very conception united to himself the temple he took from her” (Formula of Union [A.D. 431]).

Vincent of Lerins
“Nestorius, whose disease is of an opposite kind, while pretending that he holds two distinct substances in Christ, brings in of a sudden two persons, and with unheard-of wickedness would have two sons of God, two Christs,—one, God, the other, man; one, begotten of his Father, the other, born of his mother. For which reason he maintains that Saint Mary ought to be called, not the Mother of God, but the Mother of Christ” (The Notebooks 12[35] [A.D. 434]).

“Gregory of Nazianz presided over those who maintain the consubstantiality of the Holy Trinity, and assembled them together in a little dwelling, which had been altered into the form of a house of prayer, by those who held the same opinions and had a like form of worship. It subsequently became one of the most conspicuous in the city, and is so now, not only for the beauty and number of its structures, but also for the advantages accruing to it from the visible manifestations of God. For the power of God was there manifested, and was helpful both in waking visions and in dreams, often for the relief of many diseases and for those afflicted by some sudden transmutation in their affairs. The power was accredited to Mary, the Mother of God, the holy Virgin, for she does manifest herself in this way” (Church History 7:5 [A.D. 444]).

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Non-Catholic Quotes:

Martin Luther, Father of the Protestant Reformation
“She is rightly called not only the mother of the man, but also the Mother of God … It is certain that Mary is the Mother of the real and true God.” –Martin Luther’s Works, Weimar edition. English translation edited by J. Pelikan [Concordia: St. Louis], volume 24, 107]

“It is the consolation and the superabundant goodness of God, that man is able to exult in such a treasure. Mary is his true Mother.” –Sermon, Christmas, 1522.

“Mary is the Mother of Jesus and the Mother of all of us even though it was Christ alone who reposed on her knees . . . If he is ours, we ought to be in his situation; there where he is, we ought also to be and all that he has ought to be ours, and his mother is also our mother.” –Sermon, Christmas, 1529.

“God says… ‘Mary’s Son is My only Son.’ Thus Mary is the Mother of God.” –Sermons on John, chapters 1-4, 1537-39

“God did not derive his divinity from Mary; but it does not follow that it is therefore wrong to say that God was born of Mary, that God is Mary’s Son, and that Mary is God’s mother…She is the true mother of God and bearer of God…Mary suckled God, rocked God to sleep, prepared broth and soup for God, etc. For God and man are one person, one Christ, one Son, one Jesus, not two Christs…just as your son is not two sons…even though he has two natures, body and soul, the body from you, the soul from God alone.” –On the Councils and the Church, 1539.

“In this work whereby she was made the Mother of God, so many and such great good things were given her that no one can grasp them. … Not only was Mary the mother of him who is born [in Bethlehem], but of him who, before the world, was eternally born of the Father, from a Mother in time and at the same time man and God.” –Weimer’s The Works of Luther, English translation by Pelikan, Concordia, St. Louis, v. 7, p. 572.

“It is an article of faith that Mary is Mother of the Lord and still a virgin. … Christ, we believe, came forth from a womb left perfectly intact.” –Weimer’s The Works of Luther, English translation by Pelikan, Concordia, St. Louis, v.11, pp. 319–320; v. 6. p. 510.

“On account of this personal union and communion of the natures, Mary, the most blessed virgin, did not conceive a mere, ordinary human being, but a human being who is truly the Son of the most high God, as the angel testifies. He demonstrated his divine majesty even in his mother’s womb in that he was born of a virgin without violating her virginity. Therefore she is truly the mother of God and yet remained a virgin.” –Theodore G. Tappert, The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1959), 595.

“[S]he became the Mother of God, in which work so many and such great good things are bestowed on her as pass man’s understanding. For on this there follows all honor, all blessedness, and her unique place in the whole of mankind, among which she has no equal, namely, that she had a child by the Father in heaven, and such a Child…. Hence men have crowded all her glory into a single word, calling her the Mother of God…. None can say of her nor announce to her greater things, even though he had as many tongues as the earth possesses flowers and blades of grass: the sky, stars; and the sea, grains of sand. It needs to be pondered in the heart what it means to be the Mother of God.” –Luther’s Works, 21:326, cf. 21:346. Formula of Concord (1577). Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration, article VIII.24:

“God did not derive his divinity from Mary; but it does not follow that it is therefore wrong to say that God was born of Mary, that God is Mary’s Son, and that Mary is God’s mother…She is the true mother of God and bearer of God…Mary suckled God, rocked God to sleep, prepared broth and soup for God, etc. For God and man are one person, one Christ, one Son, one Jesus. not two Christs. . .just as your son is not two sons…even though he has two natures, body and soul, the body from you, the soul from God alone.” –On the Councils and the Church, 1539

“It is the consolation and the superabundant goodness of God, that man is able to exult in such a treasure. Mary is his true Mother, Christ is his brother. God is his father.” –Sermon, Christmas 1529

“Mary is the Mother of Jesus and the Mother of all of us even though it was Christ alone who reposed on her knees…If he is ours, we ought to be in his situation; there where he is, we ought also to be and all that he has ought to be ours, and his mother is also our mother.” –Sermon, Christmas, 1529

“Whoever possesses a good (firm) faith, says the Hail Mary without danger! Whoever is weak in faith can utter no Hail Mary without danger to his salvation.” –Sermon, March 11, 1523

“Our prayer should include the Mother of God.. .What the Hail Mary says is that all glory should be given to God, using these words: “Hail Mary, full of grace. The Lord is with thee; blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus Christ. Amen!” You see that these words are not concerned with prayer but purely with giving praise and honor.. .We can use the Hail Mary as a meditation in which we recite what grace God has given her. Second, we should add a wish that everyone may know and respect her…He who has no faith is advised to refrain from saying the Hail Mary.” –Personal Prayer Book, 1522

“Mary’s experience was not different from that of other women, so that the birth of Christ was a real and natural birth, Mary being his natural mother and he being her natural son. Therefore her bod performed its functions of giving birth, which naturally belonged to it, except that she brought forth without sin, without shame, without pain and injury, just as she had conceived without sin. The curse of Eve did not come on her….
No body or member of a woman ever performed it’s function without sin, except that of this Virgin; here for once God bestowed special honor upon nature and its operations. It is a great comfort to us that Jesus took on our own nature and flesh. Therefore we are not to take away from him or his mother anything that is not in conflict with grace, for the text clearly says that she brought him forth, and the angels said, unto you he is born.” –Sermon for Christmas Day, in Luther’s Church Postil, 14-15.

“Mary is the Mother of Jesus and the Mother of all of us even though it was Christ alone who reposed on her knees . . . If he is ours, we ought to be in his situation; there where he is, we ought also to be and all that he has ought to be ours, and his mother is also our mother.” –Sermon, Christmas, 1529

John Calvin, Protestant Reformer
“It cannot be denied that God in choosing and destining Mary to be the Mother of his Son, granted her the highest honor. … Elizabeth called Mary Mother of the Lord, because the unity of the person in the two natures of Christ was such that she could have said that the mortal man engendered in the womb of Mary was at the same time the eternal God.” –Calvini Opera, Corpus Reformatorum, Braunschweig–Berlin, 1863–1900, v. 45, p. 348, 35.

“To this day we cannot enjoy the blessing brought to us in Christ without thinking at the same time of that which God gave as adornment and honour to Mary, in willing her to be the mother of his only-begotten Son.” –John Calvin, A Harmony of Matthew, Mark and Luke (St. Andrew’s Press, Edinburgh, 1972), p.32

Francis Turretin, Protestant Reformer
“Mary is rightly called the Mother of God (theotokos) in the concrete and specifically because she brought forth him who is also God, but not in the abstract and reduplicatively as God. Although this is not expressly stated in the Scriptures, still it is sufficiently intimated when she is called the mother of the Lord (Lk. 1:43) and the mother of Immanuel. If the blessed virgin brought nothing to the person of the Logos (Logou) absolutely considered, still she can be said to have brought something to the person of the incarnate Logos (Logou) economically considered, inasmuch as she gave the human nature which he took into the unity of person. The title Mother of God given to the virgin was perverted by superstitious men into an occasion of idolatry, as Paul Sarpi observes. “Because the impiety of Nestorius divided Christ, constituting two sons and denying that he, who was born of the virgin Mary, is God; the church, in order to implant the catholic truth in the minds of believers, decided that the words, Mary, the Mother of God (Maria theotokos), should be more frequently inculcated in the churches of the East as well as of the West. This, instituted indeed solely for the honor of Christ, by degrees began to be shared with the mother and at length was referred entirely to her alone” (History of the Council of Trent 2 [1620], p. 181). Although, I say, this most gross error either arose from or was increased by this occasion, it derogates nothing from the truth because the abuse and error of the papists ought not to take away the lawful use of this name.” –Institutes of Elenctic Theology, ed. James T. Dennison Jr., trans. George Musgrave Giger, vol. 2 (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing, 1992–97), 13.7.11–12 (p. 320).

Heinrich Bullinger, Swiss Protestant Reformer, Cranmer’s brother-in-law and Zwingli’s successor
“She can hardly be compared with any of the other saints, but should by rights be elevated above all of them.”(Quoted in Max Thurian, Mary, Mother of All Christians (New York: Herder and Herder, 1964), 89.)

“For this reason we believe that the Virgin Mary, Begetter of God, the most pure bed and temple of the Holy Spirit, that is, her most holy body, was carried to heaven by angels.” –Bullinger’s 1539 polemical treatise against idolatry, De origine erroris, Caput XVI (Chapter 16), p. 70

Danish Lutheran theologian K. E. Skydsgaard,
“Mary’s name shall not disappear in anonymity, but shall be recalled in every age and praised as holy. Evangelical Protestantism must also learn to sing this song.” –K. E. Skydsgaard, One in Christ, Protestant and Catholic (Philadelphia: Muhlenberg, 1957)

Norm Geisler and Ralph MacKenzie, Protestant theologians
“There are many things Catholics and Protestants hold in common on the doctrine of Mary. These include her being the most blessed among women, her virgin conception of Christ the God-man, and by virtue of that her being in this sense ‘the Mother of God.” –Roman Catholics and Evangelicals: Agreements and Differences.

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